Development of Databases and Database Management
The development of databases and database management software is the foundation of modern methods of managing organizational data. The database management approach consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by different application programs. In addition, an important software package called a database management system (DBMS) serves as a software interface between users and databases. This helps users easily access the records in a database. Thus, database management involves the use of database management software to control how databases are created, interrogated, and maintained to provide information needed by end users and their organizations. Thus, the database management approach involves three basic activities.
1. Updating and maintaining common databases to reflect new business transactions and other events requiring changes to an organization’s record.
2. Providing information needed for each end user’s application by using application programs that share the data in common databases. This sharing of data is supported by the common software interface provided by a database management system package. Thus, end users and programmers do not have to know where or how data is physically stored.
3. Provide an inquiry/response and reporting capability through a DBMS package so that end users can easily interrogate databases, generate reports, and receive quick response to their unplanned requests for information.
A database management system (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the databases of an organization and its end users. The four major uses of DBMS are;
Database management package like Ms. Access and Lotus allow end users to easily develop the databases they need. However, large organizations with client/ server or mainframe based systems usually place control of enterprise wide database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other database specialists. Database developers use the data definition language (DDL) in the database management system like Oracle 8 to develop and specify the data contents, relationships, and structure of each database, and to modify these database specifications when necessary. Such information is stored in a database of data definitions and data specifications called a data dictionary (a computer based catalog or directory containing metadata, that is data about data. It includes software components to manage a database of data definitions, that is metadata about the structure, data elements, and other characteristics of an organization’s databases.), which is maintained by DBA.
The database interrogation capability is a major benefit of a database management system. End users can use a DBMS by asking for information from a database using a query language or a report generator. They can receive an immediate response in the form of video displays or printed reports. No difficult programming is required. The query language features lets the user to easily obtain immediate response to ad hoc (unplanned) data requests. The report generator feature allows die user to quickly specify a report format for information he wants presented as a report.
SQL or Structured Query Language is a query language found in many
database management packages. The basic form of an SQL query is; SELECT..
After SELECT the user lists the data fields he wants, retrieved. After FROM the user lists the files or tables from which the data must be retrieved. After WHERE he specifies conditions that limit the search to only those, data records in which he is interested.
Another query language in some database management package is QBE, or Query By Example. QBE’s point-and-click capabilities make it easier for end users than SQL.
The database of an organization need to be updated continually reflect new business transactions and other events. Other miscellaneous changes must also be made to ensure accuracy of the data in the database. This database maintenance process is accomplished by transaction processing programs and other end user application packages, with the support of DBMS. End users and information specialists can also employ various utilities provided by a DBMS for database maintenance.
DBMS packages play a major role in application development. Application developers can use the internal 4GL programming language and built-in software development tools provided by many DBMS packages i develop custom application programs. For example, a user can use a DBMS easily develop the data entry screens, forms, reports, or web pages of a business application, DBMS also makes the job of application programmers easier. they do not have to develop detailed data-handling procedure using conventional programming language every time they write a program. Ir. they can include data manipulation language (DML) statements in their programs that call on the DBMS to perform necessary data-handling activities.
Rashid Javed writes articles about computer basics such as history of computer and uses of computer.