Anybody that has ever had a job (whether it was with a large firm or small start-up company) has had some interaction with business management.
Every business needs some way of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or control in order to accomplish a goal. Business management can be defined as human action as well as design to create useful outcome and production. Management can also mean one person or a group of people performing the act of management.
It is difficult to trace the history of management since it is a more modern conceptualization. Management-like history dated back to Sumerian traders and workers of the pyramid in ancient Egypt. With the use of bookkeeping, management planning and control was then in place. As complexity and sizes of organizations grew, so did the split between groups and responsibilities. Gradually independent managers grew more and more common.
Management can be seen as a philosophy, where one measures quantity, bases their plans on that, and then takes actions to reach a goal. Business management has separated into different branches: human resources, operations, strategic, marketing, financial, and information technology.
Basic functions in management include a process of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling and motivation. These ongoing functions let management operate their business and evaluate their progress. Business policies include mission statements, their vision and objectives. The policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations, and objectives in the manager’s decision-making process. It must be easy to understand by all employees. Policies and strategies of managerial staff include understanding how to implement strategies, having a plan of action, reviewing policies and strategies regularly, having contingency plans, having progress assessed, having a good team environment, and determining roles in achieving the business’s mission.
The management hierarchy is split into different levels. There is the Senior management, Middle management, Low-level management, Foreman, and Rank and File. The Senior level management has extensive knowledge in roles and skills, they are also very aware of external factors. Their decisions are usually long-term, analytic, directive, and conceptual. They are responsible for strategic decisions. Middle management has a specialized understanding of certain managerial duties. They are responsible for carrying out decisions by Senior managers. Low-level management ensures that the other two management level decisions are executed. Low-level manager’s decisions are usually short-term. The Foreman, (or supervisor) has direct supervision over the working force, or work group. The Rank and File is more restricted and specific than the Foreman.
There are also different styles of management that people are very familiar with. Macromanagement and Micromanagement are two good examples. Macromanagement is when a manager is focuses on system entities, such as constraints, rules, information architecture, etc. Micromanagement is where a manager observes or controls the work of their employees to great detail; it is generally viewed negatively.
There are endless types of business management out there: Accounting, Capability, Change, Conflict, Communication, Cost, Crisis, Customer Relations, Design, Educational, Engineering, Environmental, Facility, Financial, Human Resources, Hospital, Hotel, Information Technology, Innovation, Inventory, Land, Logistics, Marketing, Merchandising, Materials, Office, Program, Project, Process, Performance, Product, Public, Quality, Records, Relationship, Restaurant, Risk, Spend, Stress, Systems, Talent, Time, and Work are just a few of them.